Get current module name, route name, controller name and action name Magento :

Anywhere in controller or even with template files.

Mage::app()->getRequest()->getControllerName(); // return controller name

Mage::app()->getRequest()->getActionName(); // return action name

Mage::app()->getRequest()->getRouteName(); // return routes name

Mage::app()->getRequest()->getModuleName(); // return module name